AA1000: framework published by AccountAbility providing sustainability management tools to companies.

ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers' Association): association founded in 1991 to promote, publicize, and protect the interests of supporting manufacturers for all issues affecting the car industry and transportation in general.

ADAS: Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.

AIAG (Automotive Industry Action Group): non-profit association of companies operating in the automotive industry.

APAC (Asia-Pacific): Region including the following countries: Australia, China, India, Pakistan, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, Turkey, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

Aspect Boundary (or scope): description of where impacts occur for each material aspect. When setting aspect boundaries, an organization should consider impacts within and outside the organization. Aspect boundaries vary based on the aspects reported.

Audit: systematic, documented and independent check to verify compliance with the explicit requirements of applicable regulations.



Biodiesel: non-polluting alternative fuel extracted from renewable, freely available resources such as vegetable oils. Biodiesel does not contain petroleum, but can be mixed with diesel in various proportions. It can be used in place of gasoline in suitably adapted engines.

Biodiversity: all life forms on Earth. It comprises every biological variation of genetic inheritance (breeds or varieties of species, both wild and cultivated), species (animals, plants, fungi, microorganisms), and ecosystems (natural habitats such as aquatic, forest or alpine environments).

Biomethane: gas produced by the biological decomposition of organic material in the absence of oxygen, subsequently refined to achieve a methane concentration of 95%. Used as a biofuel for motor vehicles in the same way as natural gas (or fossil methane).

BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand): total mass of oxygen used by microorganisms, over a specific time period at 20°C, to decompose (oxidize) the organic material present in a liter of water (normally expressed in mg/l). The standard test period for BOD is 5 days (BOD5).

Carpooling: transport under sustainable mobility by which private vehicles are shared by a group of people taking the same route.

Carbon footprint: term expressing the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in CO2 equivalents, of a product, service or organization.

CNG (Compressed Natural Gas): natural gas, composed mainly of methane, compressed and stored in special containers at high pressure. Used as a fuel for vehicles able to run on natural gas.

CO2 eq (carbon dioxide equivalent): parameter used to compare various greenhouse gas emissions according to their Global Warming Potential (GWP). The CO2 equivalent of a gas is calculated by multiplying the total weight of gas by its corresponding GWP.

COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand): expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/l), COD is the quantity of oxygen required for the complete chemical oxidation of organic and inorganic compounds present in a sample of water.

Conflict minerals: minerals mined in conditions of armed conflict and human rights abuses, notably in the Democratic Republic of Congo and neighboring states. Their use in the USA is regulated by the Dodd-Frank Act.

Core: a worn component that can be remanufactured.


Direct emissions (scope 1): air polluting emissions originating from combustion processes involving equipment controlled or owned by the organization.

DMA (Disclosures on Management Approach): information on how an organization identifies, analyzes, and responds to its material economic, environmental, and social impacts, both actual and potential.

EBSF (European Bus System of the Future): European Commission initiative aiming at developing a new-generation urban bus system adapted to the distinctive features of European cities.

EEV (Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles): the most stringent among European regulations on emissions.

Emerging Markets: defined as low, lower-middle or uppermiddle income countries as per the 2014 World Bank list of economies.

EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation): system that recirculates exhaust gas back to the engine’s intake to reduce NOX emissions.

EMEA (Europe, Middle East, Africa): Region including the following countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, the UK, Ethiopia, and South Africa.

Emissions trading: mechanism enabling the exchange of emission quotas between countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Economies in Transition (EIT), to meet their commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The system, introduced by EC Directive 2003/87/EC, defines a maximum level of acceptable emissions for each member state. According to the levels set, emission permits expressed in tons of CO2 are assigned to, and may be exchanged among, participating members.

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency): agency of the United States Government charged with the protection of the environment and public health.

Ergonomics (or human factors): scientific discipline focusing on the interactions among human and other elements of a system. Through the application of theory, principles, data and design methods, it aims at optimizing human wellbeing and overall system performance.

Euro VI: series of European standards on polluting emissions applied to newly registered road vehicles sold in the EU as of September 1, 2014.

FOPS (Falling Object Protection System): system protecting the cab and operator from objects falling from above.

Frequency rate: the ratio of the number of injuries reported (resulting in more than three days of absence) to the number of hours worked, multiplied by 100,000.

GHG Protocol (Greenhouse Gas Protocol): international standards and guidance regarding corporate greenhouse gas accounting and reporting.

GRI (Global Reporting Initiative): multi-stakeholder association for the development and disclosure of guidelines for nonfinancial reporting.

HFCs (Hydrofluorocarbons): halocarbons containing only hydrogen, fluorine and carbon atoms. Because HFCs contain no chlorine, bromine, or iodine, they do not deplete the ozone layer. Like other halocarbons, they are potent greenhouse gases.

HVO (Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil): next generation biodiesel derived from vegetable oils.

ILO (International Labour Organization): international organization responsible for drawing up and overseeing international labor standards.

IMDS (International Material Data System): online platform enabling the input of detailed information on the materials and substances used in purchased components.

Indirect emissions (scope 2): air polluting emissions originating from combustion processes external to the organization, over which the latter has no control.

ISO 9001: series of voluntary regulations and guidelines, developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), defining the requirements of a quality management system within an organization.

ISO 12100: voluntary regulations developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), defining principles and a methodology for achieving safety in the design of machinery.

ISO 14001: voluntary regulations developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), defining the requirements of environmental management systems.

ISO 14064: voluntary standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), specifying the international best practice in the management, reporting, and verification of data and information on greenhouse gases (GHG).

ISO 26000: guidelines developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), defining socially responsible behaviors and possible actions. This is not a certification.

ISO 50001: voluntary regulations developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), defining energy management requirements.

IUCN Red List: the most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of plant and animal species, managed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).


Kaizen: project of continuous improvement identified within World Class Manufacturing.

KPI (Key Performance Indicator): measurement of the performance of a process.


Last mile: final stage in the transport of goods, up to the point of sale or the end user’s home.

LATAM (Latin America): Region including the following countries: Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela.

LCA (Life Cycle Assessment): analytical method to evaluate every interaction between a product/component and the environment, determining the direct or indirect impact over its entire life cycle - from production to recycling and final disposal.

LED (Light-Emitting Diode): semiconductor (diode) that emits light when an electric current passes through a suitably treated silicon junction.

Lobby: formal, identifiable, and recognizable body acting on behalf of specific interests to influence decision makers (i.e., the representatives of legislative and executive powers, of authorities and control bodies, and of government organizations).

LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): gas obtained by subjecting compressed natural gas (CNG), previously purified and dehydrated, to subsequent phases of cooling and condensation.

The technology of liquefaction allows reducing gas volumes by 600 times under standard conditions, enhancing fuel range.


Material aspects: aspects that reflect the organization’s significant economic, environmental and social impacts, or that substantively influence the assessments and decisions of stakeholders. Qualitative analysis, quantitative assessment and discussion are required to determine if an aspect is material.


NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement): Region including the following countries: USA, Canada, and Mexico.

Nanotechnology: the science of manipulating materials on an atomic or molecular scale.

Near miss: event that did not result in injury, illness, or damage but had the potential to do so.

NOX (Nitrogen Oxides): range of oxides that can be produced during the combustion of nitrogen-containing compounds.


ODS (Ozone Depleting Substances): potentially harmful substances in the ozone layer that, as such, contribute to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. The most important and harmful are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), generally used as refrigerants, solvents and propellants, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), used to replace CFCs.

OHSAS 18001: voluntary standard published by the British Standards Institution, defining the requirements of occupational health and safety management systems.

OIFR (Occupational Illness Frequency Rate): cases of occupational illness per 100,000 hours worked.


PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyls): group of extremely stable chemical compounds with excellent dielectric and heat transfer properties, widely used in the past in both the industrial and commercial sectors (e.g., in capacitors and transformers). Because of their toxicity to humans and to the environment, PCBs are among the most dangerous pollutants.

PM (Particulate Matter): category of particles, solids and liquids with a diameter ranging from a few nanometers (nm) to a few tens or hundreds of micrometers (μm). Their physical and chemical properties allow them to remain suspended in the atmosphere for long periods (hours, days or years), retaining their physical and/or chemical reactivity as distinct entities.


REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals): European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use.

ROPS (Roll Over Protective Structure): structure protecting against the rollover of construction equipment.


SAD (Standard Aggregation Data): IT platform used to monitor and report performance by means of indicators.

SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction): chemical process for reducing NOX levels in exhaust gases.

Severity rate: ratio of the number of days of absence to the number of hours worked, multiplied by 1,000.

SOX (Sulfur Oxides): term indicating the sulfur oxides in the atmosphere; usually sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3).

SRI (Socially Responsible Investors): financial operators who integrate standard financials with environmental, social, and governance considerations.

Stakeholders: parties and individuals holding a legitimate interest in the activities of an organization, and that influence and are influenced by the organization’s decisions.


TCO (Total Cost of Ownership): approach used to calculate all costs in the life cycle of a device (purchasing, management, maintenance and disassembly).

Tier: standard issued by EPA regulating polluting emissions.

TSS (Total Suspended Solids): parameter used in water quality management and in water purification to indicate the quantity of solids present in suspension, which can be separated by vigorous mechanical means such as vacuum filtration or centrifugation of the water sample.


VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds): compounds such as hydrocarbons containing only carbon and hydrogen, as well as compounds additionally containing oxygen, chlorine or other elements. A VOC is defined as any organic compound with a vapor pressure of 0.01 KPa or more, at 293.15 K (20 °C) as defined in art. 268 of Italian Legislative Decree 152/2006.


WCM (World Class Manufacturing): integrated production model focusing on excellence across the entire logistics and production cycle, and on the prevention of accidents, waste, and breakdowns via continuous performance improvements engaging all levels and functions within the company.

Well-To-Wheel: analysis concerning the energy life cycle.

Work-related stress: a condition that may be associated with physical, psychological and/or social disorders or dysfunctions, affecting individuals who do not feel capable of meeting set requirements or the expectations of others.

XTLs (Anything-To-Liquids): group of synthetic fuels including Biomass-to-Liquids (BTL), Coal-to-Liquids (CTL), Gas-to- Liquids (GTL), and Petroleum-coke-to-Liquids (PTL).